The National Telegraphic Review and Operators Guide in April 1857 documented the use of the number 73 in Morse code to express "love and kisses" (later reduced to the more formal "best regards").
In 1963 the "smiley face", a yellow button with two black dots representing eyes and an upturned thick curve representing a mouth was created by freelance artist Harvey Ball.
It was realized on order of a large insurance company as part of a campaign to bolster the morale of its employees and soon became a big hit.
Emoticons have played a significant role in communication through technology, and some devices and applications have provided stylized pictures that do not use text punctuation.
They offer another range of "tone" and feeling through texting that portrays specific emotions through facial gestures while in the midst of text-based cyber communication.
Gajadhar and Green comment that both Morse code abbreviations are more succinct than modern abbreviations such as LOL.