The history of the Jews in Australia traces the history of Australian Jews from the British settlement of Australia commencing in 1788.
The first Jews came to Australia as convicts transported to Botany Bay in 1788 aboard the First Fleet that established the first European settlement on the continent, on the site of present-day Sydney.
Major general histories of the Jews in Australia are Hilary L. Rubinstein, The Jews in Australia: A Thematic History (2 vols., 1991) and Suzanne D.
Rutland, Edge of the Diaspora: Two Centuries of Jewish Settlement in Australia (2001; first ed. Each of these academic historians has written more concise general histories also.
(An answer to the question on the census was optional.) The majority are Ashkenazi Jews, many of them refugees and Holocaust survivors who arrived during and after World War II, and their descendants.
Jewish citizens make up about 0.5% of the Australian population.
When Queensland separated from New South Wales in 1859, Jewish people began to settle in Brisbane, forming the Brisbane Hebrew Congregation in 1865.